In meeting these challenges, South Africa has seen great advances in the treatment of mining impacted water, with a number of new technologies having been locally developed and implemented. The eMalahleni Water Treatment Plant in Mpumalanga Province is one of these. Here, coal mining companies are collaborating to treat acid mine drainage to potable quality using reverse osmosis. The water is then used to supplement the local municipal water supply. In the Witwatersrand, the closure of underground mines has led to the flooding of mines with the risk of discharge to surface streams. Here, large pump-and-treat schemes are being implemented with the ultimate aim of producing potable water to supplement local supply and reduce the impact on downstream surface water resources. In parallel with the developments around treatment, the inherent unsustainability of treatment in perpetuity is recognised. Efforts are under way to prevent the ingress of clean surface water into mines, reducing the volume of water which will eventually require treatment. An example is the canalisation of surface streams which traverse historical near-surface undermined areas in Johannesburg.