South Africa has a mining history that started at the end of the 19th Century and has played a substantial role in the international mining sector. The density of sulphidic ore deposits in a few noteworthy catchments, the semi-arid southern African climate, long history of mining as well as acid and neutral rock drainage (ARD and NRD) are the main strategic environmental issues that the mining industry in South Africa is currently facing. In addition, South Africa is currently experiencing the flooding of the world’s most extensive gold mining area, the Witwatersrand Basin, and delegates of ICARD 2018 will get to appreciate this issue first hand. South African mining companies, consultants, regulators and mines therefore offer unique mine drainage, water management as well as water treatment understanding and experiences.